Wednesday, May 20, 2020
All of us go though a period of discovery of our identities. The novel Invisible Man, by Ralph Ellison, addresses the issue of identity formation by following the efforts of an invisible man in search of his identity. He considers himself to be Ã¢â¬Å"invisibleÃ¢â¬ because people refuse to see him for his individuality and intelligence..The narrator in the novel Invisible Man is invisible to others and to himself because of effects of racism and the expectations of others. This is supported in significant parts of the novel such as the Ã¢â¬Å"battle royal,Ã¢â¬ his time in the Brotherhood, and the Harlem riot. The narratorÃ¢â¬â¢s invisibility first comes up in chapter one, where he is invited to a community meeting consisting of prestigious white citizens.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Ellison also supports his claim when he refers to their Ã¢â¬Å"dirty ears,Ã¢â¬ the Ã¢â¬Å"dirtÃ¢â¬ symbolizing the racist trash that has built up in the minds of the white men, affecting t heir choice not to give the narrator their full attention and respect he deserves as a human being. The narrator shows in the basement that he is truly blind to the white oppression that controls his life. He lets himself be ridiculed by turning into a puppet for the white crowd for entertainment purposes. Still, he holds onto the assumption that if he degrades himself, he will be rewarded in the end. As a result, the narrator does not advance in his journey to find his identity, but rather degrades himself even more and makes himself dependent on otherÃ¢â¬â¢s opinions. Furthermore, the narrator appears invisible to others and to himself during his time as a member of the Brotherhood, an organization that appears in the novel as a euphemism to the Communist Party in real life. The narrator joins the Brotherhood in the hopes of creating an identity for himself within the organization by acquiring recognition as a prestigious black leader. He is under the assumption that the Brother hood recognizes his ideas, his individuality, his intelligence, and soon becomes dedicated and loyal to their cause. However, the narrator does not discover the BrotherhoodÃ¢â¬â¢s true intentions until after Brother CliftonÃ¢â¬â¢s funeral. The Brotherhood turns against the narrator for his belligerent speech at the funeral thatShow MoreRelatedMwds: the Invisible Man3683 Words Ã |Ã 15 PagesMajor Works Data Sheet Invisible Man By: Heather 1. Ellison, Ralph. Invisible Man. New York: Vintage International, 1995. Print. 2. Genre: Ã¢â¬Å"Had they planned it this way? But no, they wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t catch me again. This time I had made the moveÃ¢â¬ (195). The Genre of Invisible Man would be Bildungsroman, a word used to describe the personal development of education and formation. This quote carefully hints the identity recognition that the narrator is experiencing. The recognition that Ellison highlights
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Everything is bigger in Texas. This phrase has been said or hear at least once by every person in Texas. Even tourists poke fun at the phrase when they get a chance. Texas is known for the cowboys, saddle, and horses. Although these are just stereotypes, they are slightly true. Texas loves its horses, but it also loves it pride. Like many states, it has a long history before it joined the US. Texas is also a state with many political differences, but it is based around one particular political culture. Political culture is like a culture itself; many beliefs and habits blended into one single community, but involving politics. Texas especially, has a variety of international beliefs, but its politics mainly revolves around one subculture.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This is one of the reasons why it has many political views, still until this day. However, as stated before, it is still dominated by the will to protect personal welfare, and no government intervention. In class, we had discussed how Texas is individualistic because of its independence traits. Daniel Elazar describes Texas a the lone star; they are getting help from the government, but in the end, they prefer to be free of control. One enormous example is the right open carry. Texas is perhaps the state who exercises this right the most. In 1955, the act was carried and boy, did Texas loved this law. They felt independent, and like if they were their own protection. They did not need any form of police force, or the under thought that the government was there to help them. They were in control of their safety, and will act upon any dangerous encounter. Furthermore, Texas also love to put that sign, Ã¢â¬Å"Trespassers will be shotÃ¢â¬ . It is not uncommon to hear a case in court in which an intruder was shot by a shotgun by the owner, and the citizen is protected by law. There is a national presumption that Texas loves guns, and they arenÃ¢â¬â¢t far off. However, guns is a symbol of freedom, and the feeling to be free from any sort of protection of law enforcement is a breather for Texans. Texas is also individualistic in the way that it supports private business, and individual
Essay On Ã¢â¬ËWaiting for GodotÃ¢â¬â¢ The play, Waiting For Godot, is centred around two men, Estragon and Vladimir, who are waiting for a Mr. Godot, of whom they know little. Estragon admits himself that he may never recognize Mr. Godot, Ã¢â¬Å"Personally I wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t know him if I ever saw him. Ã¢â¬ (p. 23). Estragon also remarks, Ã¢â¬Å" we hardly know him. Ã¢â¬ (p. 23), which illustrates to an audience that the identity of Mr. Godot is irrelevant. What is an important element of the play is the act of waiting for someone or something that never arrives. Beckett however suggests that the identity of Godot is in itself a question. Ã¢â¬ Estragon: LetÃ¢â¬â¢s go. Vladimir: We canÃ¢â¬â¢t. Estragon: Why not Vladimir: WeÃ¢â¬â¢re waiting for Godot. Ã¢â¬ (p. 14). Estragon and Vladimir have made the choice of waiting, without instruction or guidance, as Vladimir says, Ã¢â¬Å"He didnÃ¢â¬â¢t say for sure heÃ¢â¬â¢d comeÃ¢â¬ (p. 14), but decides to Ã¢â¬Å"wait till we know exactly how we standÃ¢â¬ (p. 18). Waiting in the play induces boredom as a theme. Ironically Beckett attempts to create a similar nuance of boredom within the audience by the mundane repetition of dialogue and actions. Vladimir and Estragon constantly ponder and ask questions, many of which are rhetorical or are left unanswered. During the course of the play, certain unanswered questions arise: who is Godot Where are Gogo and Didi Who beats Gogo All of these unanswered questions represent the rhetorical questions that individuals ask but never get answers for within their lifetime. Vis a vis is there a God Where do we come from Who is responsible for our suffering The German existentialist philosopher Martin Heidegger expressed clearly that human beings can never hope to understand why they are here. The tramps repetitive inspection of their empty hats perhaps symbolizes mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s vain search for answers within the vacuum of a universe. Jean Paul Sartre, the leading figure of French existentialism declared that human beings require a rational basis for their lives but are unable to achieve one, and thus human life is a futile passion. Estragon and Vladimir attempt to put order into their lives by waiting for a Godot who never arrives. They continually subside into the futility of their situation, reiterating the phrase Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing to be done. Ã¢â¬ Vladimir also resolves with the notion that life is futile, or nothing is to be done at the beginning, replying, Ã¢â¬Å"All my life IÃ¢â¬â¢ve tried to put it from me And I resumed the struggle. (p. 9). Ã¢â¬Å"Estragon: (anxious). And we Where do we come inÃ¢â¬ (p. 19). EstragonÃ¢â¬â¢s question is left unanswered by Vladimir. Note that these questions seem to bring pain or anxiety to Estragon. Beckett conveys a universal message that pondering the impossible questions, that arise from waiting, cause pain, anxiety, inactivity and destroy people from within. Note that both Vladimir and Estragon ponder suicide, by hanging themselves from the tree, but are unable to act through to anxiety, as Estragon states, Ã¢â¬Å"DonÃ¢â¬â¢t letÃ¢â¬â¢s do anything. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s safer. Ã¢â¬ (p. 18). KierkagaardÃ¢â¬â¢s philosophical view of Ã¢â¬ËDreadÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËAngstÃ¢â¬â¢ (German for anxiety) as described by the German philosopher Martin Heidegger, is a state in which the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s freedom of choice places the individual in a state of anxiety, as the individual is surrounded by almost infinite possibilities. This could explain the inactivity of both Estragon and Vladimir. Both characters are aware of different choices they can make but are hesitant, anxious and generally inactive, as shown at the end of Act one when they decide to leave but are immobile. Ã¢â¬ Estragon: Well, shall we go Vladimir: Yes, letÃ¢â¬â¢s go. Romeo and Juliet by Michael Horwood EssayEstragon and Vladimir through the play end as they begin, have made no progression: waiting for Godot. The few leaves that have grown on the tree by the second act may symbolize hope but more feasibly represent the illusive passage of time. Beckett wrote in his Proust essay that time is the Ã¢â¬ËpoisonousÃ¢â¬â¢ condition we are born to, constantly changing us without our knowing, finally killing us without our assent. A process of dying seems to take place within all four characters, mentally and physically. Estragon and Vladimir may be pictured as having a great future behind them. Estragon may have been a poet, but he is now content to quote and adapt, saying, Ã¢â¬Å"Hope deferred maketh the something sickÃ¢â¬ (p. 10) Ã¢â¬â the something being the heart from a quote from the Bible. Vladimir may have been a thinker, but finds he is uncertain of his reasoning, as when questioned by Estragon about their whereabouts the day before replies angrily (not rationally), Ã¢â¬Å"Nothing is certain when youÃ¢â¬â¢re about. Ã¢â¬ (p. 14). Time also erodes EstragonÃ¢â¬â¢s memory, as shown here: Ã¢â¬ Vladimir: What was it you wanted to know Estragon: IÃ¢â¬â¢ve forgotten. (Chews. ) ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s what annoys me. (p. 20). Time causes their energies and appetites to ebb. The fantasized prospect of an erection Ã¢â¬â a by-product of hanging Ã¢â¬â makes Estragon Ã¢â¬Ëhighly excitedÃ¢â¬â¢ (p. l7). The dread of nightmares plague Estragon during the day; ailments and fears become more agonizing. It is an example of Beckett using Ã¢â¬ËordinaryÃ¢â¬â¢ images to depict mankindÃ¢â¬â¢s decay. Time destroys PozzoÃ¢â¬â¢s sight and strips the previous master of almost everything. BeckettÃ¢â¬â¢s bitterness towards time is illustrated by PozzoÃ¢â¬â¢s bleak speech: Ã¢â¬Å"(suddenly furious). Have you not done tormenting me with your accursed time! ne day I went blind one day we were born, one day we shall die, the same day, the same second, is that not enough for you (Calmer. ) They give birth astride of a grave, the light gleams an instant, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s night once more. Ã¢â¬ (p. 89). When the structure of action is closing in through the course the play, with the past barely recognizable and the future unknown, the here and now of action, the present acting on stage becomes all-important. Existentialist theories propose that the choices of the present are important and that time causes perceptional confusion. Note how shadowy the past becomes to Estragon, as he asks questions such as, Ã¢â¬Å"What did we do yesterdayÃ¢â¬ (p. 14). Moreover, all the characters caught in the deteriorating cycle of events do not aspire to the future. The play consists of two acts which represent two cycles of time or two mirrors reflecting endlessly. The pattern of time appears to be circular or cyclic, as opposed to linear. Linear time seems to have broken down, as events do not develop with inevitable climaxes historically. The boy returns with the same message, Godot never comes and tomorrow never seems to arrive. Vladimir mentions that Ã¢â¬Å"time has stoppedÃ¢â¬ (p. 36).
Thursday, April 23, 2020
Shelly, Mary: Frankenstein: Lack Of Verisimilitude Kristin McOlvin April 12th, 1999 Mr. Loeffler English 12 Lack Of Verisimilitude in Frankenstein In Mary Shelly's gothic novel Frankenstein, the reader must suspend disbelief during many crucial points in the plot. There are also many inconsistencies in the minor details of the story. This lack of verisimilitude may be noticed by readers today, but in the ninteenth century, when this novel was written, readers were too terrified with the story line to notice the unlikelihood of many of the happenings. For example, the moment that Frankenstein gave life to the previously inanimate form of the being he made, he remains fixed to the spot while the gigantic monster walks away. Than Frankenstein never hears any more from him for nearly two years. The author supposed that Frankenstein has the power to communicate life to dead matter, but how do we suppose this creature learns habits? If Frankenstein could have endowed his creature with the vital principle of a hundred beings, it would have not have been able to walk without previously having done so, just as it would not be able to talk, reason, or judge. Victor does not pretend that he could endow it with faculties as well as life, and yet when it is about a year old we find it reading Werter, and Plutarch and Volney. The whole detail of the development of the creature's mind and faculties is full of these inconsistencies. After the creature leaves Frankenstein, on the night it came to life, it wanders for sometime in the woods, and than takes up residence in a kind of shed adjoining to a cottage. Here it remains for many months without the inhabitants knowing, and learns to talk and read by watching them through a whole in the wall. As you can see from my examples, Mary Shelly's novel Frankenstein lacks much verisimilitude. I have given you examples of the monster alone, but these unlikihoods go on throughout the plot as well. This is not unfamiliar for a science fiction, as well as a gothic novel, where many times belief must be suspend in order to get the effect to author is trying to put out.
Tuesday, March 17, 2020
Frankenstien essays Everyone starts off on the same maturity level. It takes years and many experiences to mature. Surroundings have a high impact on how one person will grow into maturity. If a person is the youngest child and only grows up around older people, they will most likely mature more quickly than other kids because the only way they learn is from adults. Mary Shelleys novel, Frankenstein, describes throughout the characters how people can mature, or not even grow up at all. Growing into maturity takes time. You have to be willing to grow up in order to become mature. The monsters creator, Victor Frankenstein, is foolish and immature throughout the whole story. Foolish and jealous of Gods power, Victor tries to reanimate life. It was the secrets of heaven and earth that I desired to learn..(Page 37). This shows how weak and immature Victor actually was because hes not happy with his abilities as they are so he has to strengthen his powers by doing evil through science. If Victor was truly mature and happy with himself, he wouldnt push his abilities over the limits to try to be something else, a creator. Also, Victor acts guilty because he has something to hide, which is his creation. Victor should take responsibility for his actions instead of hiding the monster. Since he was trying to be so great and like a higher power, he should be so proud of himself for accomplishing something no one else has, he shouldnt want to hide it. In the same sense, Victor tries to hide from his monster, this also shows his weakness and him being scared. If the correctly created the monster, he shouldnt have any reason to run from it, it would be perfect. The monster would be faithful and respect his creator (this also shows immaturity from the monster). We are not in an equal, perfect world. Humans cant respect their creator; therefore, it goes to show immaturity ...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Guinn v. United States Guinn v. United States was a United States Supreme Court case decided in 1915, dealing with the constitutionality of voter qualification provisions in state constitutions. Specifically, the court found residency-based Ã¢â¬Å"grandfather clauseÃ¢â¬ exemptions to voter literacy tests- but not the tests themselves- to be unconstitutional. Literacy tests were used in several Southern states between the 1890s and 1960s as a way of preventing African Americans from voting. The unanimous decision in Guinn v. United States marked the first time the Supreme Court struck down a state law disenfranchising African Americans.Ã Fast Facts: Guinn v. United States Case Argued: Oct. 17, 1913Decision Issued: June 21, 1915Petitioners: Frank Guinn and J. J. Beal, Oklahoma election officialsRespondent: United StatesKey Questions: Did OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather clause, in singling out black Americans as being required to take a voter literacy test, violate the U.S. Constitution? Did OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy test clause- without the grandfather clause- violate the U.S. Constitution?Majority Decision: Justices White, McKenna, Holmes, Day, Hughes, Van Devanter, Lamar, PitneyDissenting: None, but Justice McReynolds took no part in the consideration or decision of the case.Ruling: The Supreme Court ruled that residency-based Ã¢â¬Å"grandfather clauseÃ¢â¬ exemptions to voter literacy tests- but not the tests themselves- were unconstitutional. Facts of the Case Shortly after it was admitted into the Union in 1907, the state of Oklahoma passed an amendment to its constitution requiring that citizens pass a literacy test before being allowed to vote. However, the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s Voter Registration Act of 1910 contained a clause allowing voters whose grandfathers had either been eligible to vote before January 1, 1866, had been residents of Ã¢â¬Å"some foreign nation,Ã¢â¬ or had been soldiers, to vote without taking the test. Rarely affecting white voters, the clause disenfranchised many black voters because their grandfathers had been slaves before 1866 and were thus ineligible to vote.Ã As applied in most states, the literacy tests were highly subjective. Questions were confusingly worded and often had several possible correct answers. In addition, the tests were graded by white election officials who had been trained to discriminate against black voters. In one instance, for example, election officials rejected a black college graduate even though there was not Ã¢â¬Å"the slightest room for doubt as to whetherÃ¢â¬ he was entitled to vote, concluded the U.S. Circuit Court. After the 1910 November midterm election, Oklahoma election officials Frank Guinn and J.J. Beal were charged in federal court with conspiring to fraudulently disenfranchise black voters, in violation of the Fifteenth Amendment. In 1911, Guinn and Beal were convicted and appealed to the Supreme Court. Constitutional Issues While the Civil Rights Act of 1866 had guaranteed U.S. citizenship without regard to race, color, or previous condition of slavery or involuntary servitude, it did not address the voting rights of former slaves. To bolster the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments of the Reconstruction-era, the Fifteenth Amendment, ratified on February 3, 1870, prohibited the federal government and the states from denying any citizen the right to vote based on their race, color, or previous condition of servitude. The Supreme Court faced two related Constitutional questions. First, did OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather clause, in singling out black Americans as being required to take the literacy test, violate the U.S. Constitution? Second, did OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s literacy test clause- without the grandfather clause- violate the U.S. Constitution? The Arguments The state of Oklahoma argued that the 1907 amendment to its state constitution was validly passed and clearly within the powers of the states granted by the Tenth Amendment. The Tenth Amendment reserves all powers not specifically granted to the U.S. government in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution to the states or to the people. Attorneys for the U.S. government chose to argue only against the constitutionality of the Ã¢â¬Å"grandfather clauseÃ¢â¬ itself while conceding that literacy tests, if written and administered to be racially neutral, were acceptable. Majority Opinion In its unanimous opinion, delivered by Chief Justice C.J. White on June 21, 1915, the Supreme Court ruled that OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather clause- having been written in a way to serve Ã¢â¬Å"no rational purposeÃ¢â¬ other than to deny African American citizens the right to vote- violated the Fifteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution. The convictions of Oklahoma election officials Frank Guinn and J.J. Beal were thus upheld. However, since the government had previously conceded the point, Justice White wrote that, Ã¢â¬Å"No time need be spent on the question of the validity of the literacy test, considered alone, since, as we have seen, its establishment was but the exercise by the State of a lawful power vested in it not subject to our supervision, and, indeed, its validity is admitted.Ã¢â¬ Dissenting Opinion As the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s decision was unanimous, with only Justice James Clark McReynolds not taking part in the case, no dissenting opinion was issued. The Impact In overturning OklahomaÃ¢â¬â¢s grandfather clause, but upholding its right to require pre-voting literacy tests, the Supreme Court confirmed the historic rights of the states to establish voter qualifications as long as they did not otherwise violate the U.S. Constitution. While it was a symbolic legal victory for African American voting rights, the Guinn ruling fell far short of immediately enfranchising black Southern citizens. At the time it was issued, the courtÃ¢â¬â¢s ruling also nullified similar voter qualification provisions in the constitutions of Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, North Carolina, and Virginia. While they could no longer apply grandfather clauses, their state legislatures enacted poll taxes and other means of restricting black voter registration. Even after the Twenty-Fourth Amendment prohibited the use of poll taxes in federal elections, five states continued to impose them in state elections. Not until 1966 did the U.S. Supreme Court declare poll taxes in state elections unconstitutional.Ã In final analysis, Guinn vs. United States decided in 1915, was a small, but a significant first legal step in the Civil Rights Movement toward racial equality in the United States. It was not until passage of the Voting Rights Act of 1965 that all remaining legal barriers denying black Americans the right to vote under the Fifteenth Amendment- enacted nearly a century earlier- were finally outlawed. Sources and Further Reference Guinn v. United States (238 U.S. 347). Cornell Law School Legal Information Institute.Guinn v. United States (1915). Oklahoma Historical Society.Onion, Rebecca. The Impossible Literacy Test Louisiana Gave Black Voters in the 1960s. Slate (2013).Poll Taxes. Smithsonian National Museum of American History.
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Criminal Court Visit - Essay Example The general majority believe that crime is on a constant rise, although statistics show offenses are at their lowest since the early 1990s. Criminologists blame news coverage for the unwarranted increase f the public's awareness f crime versus actual crime. Politicians exploit the sensationalized crime as a way to relate to the public's perception that the increased crime needs special attention, so they manipulate the reports by the media. Although the television has been harmful in it's' distortion f reality, it is useful in keeping people informed on criminal information and warnings when there is a real concern. Criminal procedure is generally based on the idea f obtaining balance in the system. Criminal procedure is composed f the rules governing the series f proceedings through which the substantive criminal law is enforced. (Law about Criminal Procedures) The public perceives that there are not enough rules regulating police and that police have too much discretion in obtaining information and evidence in charging and individual with a crime. Unfortunately, when you make it easier to prove guilt, then it becomes harder to establish innocence. (Overview f Criminal Procedure) The public may perceive that the ends justify the means and that the criminal procedure as it is written today may violate or deprive an individual f the constitutional rights. An example f one court case; U.S. vs. Dunnock, 295 f.3d 431 (4th Cir. 2002) Defendant, "by virtue f the fact he was standing outside his home in the presence f police as they were about to execute a valid search warrant, had all the benefits f the protections afforded by the knock and announce. There are basic guidelines governing criminal procedures, such as; reasonable suspicion is used in stopping or frisking an individual, and probable cause is used to arrest, sear, or detain a suspect. Criminal procedure must balance the defendant's right and the state's interest in a speedy and efficient trial with the desire for justice Court Procedures The public perception f the courts is either the jurors are not fully informed as to the ramifications or what their specific duties are pertaining to the case at hand. Many time juries will not be informed that their decision will pass down an extremely harsh sentence for fear that they will not find guilt because they do not like the sentencing guidelines for the criminal activity. For example; the jury foreperson in the Waco massacre case wept openly when she discovered how much prison time the federal government gave those defendants. She further stated, if the jury had known the accused were going to receive such severe sentences, that even though they were guilty f the crimes, they would have never been convicted (Jury Nullification). The statement that was made by the foreperson f that jury would have nullified the jury. If a juror disagrees with the law and court instructions a judge can remove the juror. The perception from the public on this matter is if the juror disagrees with the majority f the jurors the judge can remove that particular one. The judges and prosecutors not only blame the mishandling f many criminal court cases and appeals on the increased case loads, but they fault political agendas and the pendulum swing f what the public perceives as criminal